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Ga+ Beam Lithography for Nanoscale Silicon Reactive Ion Etching

Research Area: Nanofabrication Year: 2010
Type of Publication: Article Keywords: FIB, ion beam, galium, RIE, ICP-RIE, plasma etching, processing, mask, selectivity, grayscale lithography
Authors: David Henry; Mike Shearn; B. Chhim; Axel Scherer
Journal: Nanotechnology Volume: 21
Number: 24 Pages: 245303
Month: June
By using a dry etch chemistry which relies on the highly preferential etching of silicon, over that of gallium (Ga), we show resist-free fabrication of precision, high aspect ratio nanostructures and microstructures in silicon using a focused ion beam (FIB) and an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Silicon etch masks are patterned via Ga+ ion implantation in a FIB and then anisotropically etched in an ICP-RIE using fluorinated etch chemistries. We determine the critical areal density of the implanted Ga layer in silicon required to achieve a desired etch depth for both a Pseudo Bosch (SF6/C4F8) and cryogenic fluorine (SF6/O-2) silicon etching. High fidelity nanoscale structures down to 30 nm and high aspect ratio structures of 17:1 are demonstrated. Since etch masks may be patterned on uneven surfaces, we utilize this lithography to create multilayer structures in silicon. The linear selectivity versus implanted Ga density enables grayscale lithography. Limits on the ultimate resolution and selectivity of Ga lithography are also discussed.
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