Caltech Nanofabrication Group

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Nanofabrication

Description

Continually pushing the boundaries of science and technology requires an endless search for novel and high utility nanofabrication techniques.  Through the advanced lithography, masking, etching, and processing techniques we have developed, we regularly produce structures with lateral dimensions as small as 2nm, fabricate devices exhibiting aspect ratios of 60:1, and explore new device geometries using sophisticated 3-dimensional etch control.  We have exploited these techniques to create sub-10nm diameter silicon structures capable of light emission, lithographically-defined quantum dots for tunable resonant tunneling devices, and suspended membranes with nanometer scale pores for biological sensing and characterization.  Our research laboratory is built around producing such nanostructures and applying them to new optoelectronic, biomedical, and quantum-confined electronic devices, enabling higher speeds, greater efficiencies, as well as scientific investigation and technological integration in ways previously unachievable.

 

  

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Publications

  • Walavalkar, S., Latawiec, P., Homyk, A. & Scherer, A. (2014). Scalable Method for the Fabrication and Testing of Glass-Filled, Three-Dimensionally Sculpted Extraordinary Transmission Apertures. Nano Letters, Advanced Online. [More] 
  • Walavalkar, S., Latawiec, P. & Scherer, A. (2013). Coulomb Blockade in Vertical, Bandgap Engineered Silicon Nanopillars. Applied Physics Letters, 102(18), 183101. [More] 
  • Walavalkar, S., Homyk, A., Henry, D. & Scherer, A. (2012). Three-Dimensional Etching of Silicon for the Fabrication of Low-Dimensional and Suspended Devices. Nanoscale, Advanced online. [More] 
  • Chien, C. Y., Chang, Y. -., Chen, K. H., Lai, W.-T., George, T., Scherer, A. et al. (2011). Nanoscale, Catalytically Enhanced Local Oxidation of Silicon-containing Layers by 'Burrowing' Ge Quantum Dots. Nanotechnology, 22(43), 435602. [More] 
  • Chen, K. H., Chien, C. Y., Lai, W.-T., George, T., Scherer, A. & Li, P. -. (2011). Controlled Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth of Germanium Quantum Dots on Nanopatterned Silicon Dioxide and Silicon Nitride Substrates. Crystal Growth & Design, 11(7), 3222-3226. [More] 
  • Rajagopal, A., Walavalkar, S., Chen, S., Guo, L., Gwinn, T. & Scherer, A. (2010). Microscaled and Nanoscaled Platinum Sensors. Applied Physics Letters, 97(13), 133109. [More] 
  • Walavalkar, S., Homyk, A., Henry, D. & Scherer, A. (2010). Controllable Deformation of Silicon Nanowires with Strain up to 24%. Journal of Applied Physics, 107(12), 124314. [More] 
  • Henry, D., Shearn, M., Chhim, B. & Scherer, A. (2010). Ga+ Beam Lithography for Nanoscale Silicon Reactive Ion Etching. Nanotechnology, 21(24), 245303. [More] 
  • Henry, D., Welch, C. & Scherer, A. (2009). Techniques of Cryogenic Reactive Ion Etching in Silicon for Fabrication of Sensors. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 27(5), 1211-1216. [More] 
  • Henry, D., Walavalkar, S., Homyk, A. & Scherer, A. (2009). Alumina Etch Masks for Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Silicon Micropillars and Nanopillars. Nanotechnology, 20(25), 255305. [More] 
  • Gilbertson, A., Gudlewski, B., Johnson, M., Maltezos, G., Scherer, A. & Shigley, J. (2009). Cutting Diffraction Gratings to Improve Dispersion ("Fire") in Diamonds. Gems and Gemology, 45(4), 260-270. [More] 
  • Barbic, M., Vltava, L., Barrett, C. P., Emery, T. & Scherer, A. (2008). Stripe Sensor Tomography. Review of Scientific Instruments, 79(3). [More] 
  • Barbic, M., Barrett, C. P., Vltava, L., Emery, T., Walker, C. & Scherer, A. (2008). Planar Self-Biased Magnetic Resonance Microscopy "Lenses". Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B: Magnetic Resonance Engineering, 33B(1), 21-31. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A. (2006). Stray Field Magnetic Resonance Tomography Using Ferromagnetic Spheres. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 181(2), 223-228. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A (2006). Magnetic Nanostructures as Amplifiers of Transverse Fields in Magnetic Resonance. In Unk. (editor), pages 899. [More] 
  • Okamoto, K., Neal, T., Zhang, Z., Wei, D. T. & Scherer, A. (2005). Molecular Dynamics Study of Photochromic Molecules Probed by the Mask Pattern Transferred Transient Grating Technique. Chemical Physics Letters, 414(1-3), 155-160. [More] 
  • Choi, J. M., Park, Y. -. & Scherer, A. (2005). Fabrication of a Tungsten Master Stamp Using Self-Ordered Porous Alumina. Nanotechnology, 16(9), 1655-1659. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A. (2005). Magnetic Nanostructures as Amplifiers of Transverse Fields in Magnetic Resonance. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 28(2-4), 91-105. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A. (2005). Nanomagnetic Planar Magnetic Resonance Microscopy "Lens". Nano Letters, 5(4), 787-792. [More] 
  • Okamoto, K., Zhang, Z., Wei, D. T. & Scherer, A. (2004). Photothermal Molecular Sensing by Using Metal Thin-Film Nanograting for Chemical and Biomedical Applications. Thin Solid Films, 469-470, 420-424. [More] 
  • Okamoto, K., Zhang, Z., Scherer, A. & Wei, D. T. (2004). Mask Pattern Transferred Transient Grating Technique. Applied Physics Letters, 85(21), 4842-4844. [More] 
  • Schilling, J., Scherer, A., Gosele, U. & Kolbe, M. (2004). Macroporous Silicon Membranes as Electron and X-Ray Transmissive Windows. Applied Physics Letters, 85(7), 1152-1154. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A. (2004). Two-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Tomographic Microscopy Using Ferromagnetic Probes. Journal of Applied Physics, 95(7), 3598-3606. [More] 
  • Husain, A., Hone, J., Postma, H. W., Huang, X. M., Drake, T., Barbic, M. et al. (2003). Nanowire-Based Very-High-Frequency Electromechanical Resonator. Applied Physics Letters, 83(6), 1240-1242. [More] 
  • Lev, B., Lassailly, Y., Lee, C., Scherer, A. & Mabuchi, H. (2003). Atom Mirror Etched from a Hard Drive. Applied Physics Letters, 83(2), 395-397. [More] 
  • Feldman, J. E., Wilcox, J. Z., George, T., Barsic, D. & Scherer, A. (2003). Elemental Surface Analysis at Ambient Pressure by Electron-Induced X-Ray Fluorescence. Review of Scientific Instruments, 74(3), 1251-1254. [More] 
  • Barbic, M. & Scherer, A. (2002). Sample-Detector Coupling in Atomic Resolution Magnetic Resonance Diffraction. Journal of Applied Physics, 92(12), 7345-7354. [More] 
  • Barbic, M., Schultz, S., Wong, J. & Scherer, A. (2001). Recording Processes in Perpendicular Patterned Media Using Longitudinal Magnetic Recording Heads. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 37(4), 1657-1660. [More] 
  • Doll, T., Hochberg, M., Barsic, D. & Scherer, A. (2000). Micro-Machined Electron Transparent Alumina Vacuum Windows. Sensors and Actuators, 87(1-2), 52-59. [More] 
  • Doll, T., Vuckovic, J., Hochberg, M. & Scherer, A. (2000). Low-Energy Electron Beam Focusing in Self-Organized Porous Alumina Vacuum Windows. Applied Physics Letters, 76(24), 3635-3637. [More] 
  • Wiest, F., Freitag, G., Hochberg, M., Scherer, A., Eisele, I. & Doll, T. (2000). Fully MEMS- and Nanostructured Batch Fabrication of SMT Inductors. Micro Tec, 2, 843-847. [More] 
  • Wong, J., Scherer, A., Barbic, M. & Schultz, S. (1999). Perpendicular Patterned Media in an (Al0.9Ga0.1)2O3/GaAs Substrate for Magnetic Storage. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 17(6), 3190-3196. [More] 
  • Wong, J., Scherer, A., Todorovic, M. & Schultz, S. (1999). Fabrication and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Perpendicular Patterned Information Storage Media in an Al2O3/GaAs Substrate. Journal of Applied Physics, 85(8), 5489-5491. [More] 
  • Todorovic, M., Schultz, S., Wong, J. & Scherer, A. (1999). Writing and Reading of Single Magnetic Domain Per Bit Perpendicular Patterned Media. Applied Physics Letters, 74(17), 2516-2518. [More] 
  • Dial, O., Cheng, C.-C. & Scherer, A. (1998). Fabrication of High-Density Nanostructures by Electron Beam Lithography. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 16(6), 3887-3890. [More] 
  • Wong, J., Scherer, A. & George, T. (1997). Surface Micromachined Membranes for Tunnel Transducers. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 15(6), 2768-2772. [More] 
  • Yamamoto, S. Y., O'Barr, R., Schultz, S. & Scherer, A. (1997). MR Head Response from Arrays of Lithographically Patterned Perpendicular Nickel Columns. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 33(5), 3016-3018. [More] 
  • O'Barr, R., Yamamoto, S. Y., Schultz, S., Xu, W. & Scherer, A. (1997). Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoscale Arrays of Nickel Columns. Journal of Applied Physics, 81(8), 4730-4732. [More] 
  • O'Barr, R., Lederman, M., Schultz, S., Xu, W., Scherer, A. & Tonucci, R. J. (1996). Preparation and Quantitative Magnetic Studies of Single-Domain Nickel Cylinders. Journal of Applied Physics, 79(8), 5303-5305. [More] 
  • Xu, W., Wong, J., Cheng, C.-C., Johnson, R. & Scherer, A. (1995). Fabrication of Ultrasmall Magnets by Electroplating. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 13(6), 2372-2375. [More] 
  • Cheeks, T. L., Brasil, M. J., Boeck, J. D., Harbison, J. P., Sands, T., Tanaka, M. et al. (1993). Epitaxial-tau(Mn,Ni)Al/(Al,Ga)As Heterostructures: Magnetic and Magneto-Optic Properties. Journal of Applied Physics, 73(10), 6121-6123. [More] 
  • Boeck, J. D., Sands, T., Harbison, J. P., Scherer, A., Gilchrist, H. L., Cheeks, T. L. et al. (1993). Non-Volatile Memory Characteristics of Submicrometre Hall Structures Fabricated in Epitaxial Ferromagnetic MnAl Films on GaAs. Electronics Letters, 29(4), 421-423. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & der Gaag, B. P. (1990). Characterization of Nanostructures by Reflection Electron Microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 56(25), 2566-2568. [More] 
  • der Gaag, B. P. & Scherer, A. (1990). Microfabrication Below 10nm. Applied Physics Letters, 56(5), 481-483. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & der Gaag, B. P (1990). Ion Etching of Ultranarrow Structures. In Craighead, H. G. & Gibson, J. M. (editors), pages 149-160. [More] 
  • Claussen, J. E., Craighead, H. G., Harbison, J. P., Scherer, A., Schiavone, L. M., der Gaag, B. P. et al. (1989). Nonradiative Damage Measured by Cathodoluminescence in Etched Multiple Quantum Well GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Dots. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 7(6), 2011-2014. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Roukes, M. L. (1989). Quantum Device Microfabrication: Resolution Limits of Ion Beam Processing. Applied Physics Letters, 55(4), 377-379. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., der Gaag, B. P., Beebe, E. D. & Lin, P. S. (1989). Fluoride Etch Masks for High-Resolution Pattern Transfer. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 8(1), 28-32. [More] 
  • Cheeks, T. L., Roukes, M. L., Scherer, A., der Gaag, B. P. & Craighead, H. G (1989). Ion Damage Studies in GaAs-AlGaAs Ultra-Narrow Wires. In Unk. (editor). Materials Research Society. [More] 
  • Thornton, T. J., Roukes, M. L., Scherer, A. & der Gaag, B. P (1989). Microfabrication and Electron Scattering in Very Small Devices. In Unk (editor), International Symposium on GaAs and Related Compounds, pages 861-868. IOP. [More] 
  • Cheeks, T. L., Roukes, M. L., Scherer, A. & Craighead, H. G. (1988). Narrow Conducting Channels Defined by Helium Ion Beam Damage. Applied Physics Letters, 53(20), 1964-1966. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Inal, O. T. & Pettit, R. B. (1988). Modelling of Degradation in Black Copper Photothermal Collector Coatings. Journal of Materials Science, 23(6), 1923-1933. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Inal, O. T. & Pettit, R. B. (1988). Modelling of Degradation of Nickel-Pigmented Aluminum Oxide Photothermal Collector Coatings. Journal of Materials Science, 23(6), 1934-1942. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Craighead, H. G., Roukes, M. L. & Harbison, J. P. (1988). Electrical Damage Induced by Ion Beam Etching of GaAs. Journal of Vacuum Science Technology B, 6(1), 277-279. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Grabbe, P., Kash, K., Lin, P. S., Craighead, H. G. & der Gaag, B. P (1988). Ion Beam Assisted Etching of Indium Containing Compound Semiconductors. In unk, pages S17. Minerals, Metals and Materials Society. [More] 
  • Heinrich, H., Bauer, G. & Kuchar, F., editors. (1988). Fabrication of Ultra-Small Structures: Quantum Wires, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences, Springer. [More] 
  • Harbison, J. P., Scherer, A., Hwang, D. M., Nazar, L. & Beebe, E. D (1988). MBE Regrowth of AlGaAs on Ion Etched GaAs/AlGaAs Microstructures. In Unk (editor). [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Roukes, M. L., Craighead, H. G., Ruthen, R. M., Beebe, E. D. & Harbison, J. P. (1987). Ultranarrow conducting channels defined in GaAs-AlGaAs by Low-Energy Ion Damage. Applied Physics Letters, 51(25), 2133-2135. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Craighead, H. G. & Beebe, E. D. (1987). Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Reactive Ion Etching in Boron Trichloride-Argon Mixtures. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 5(6), 1599-1605. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Beebe, E. D. & Craighead, H. G. (1987). A Study of Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Reactive Ion Etching Parameters. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 5(4), 1604-1605. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Craighead, H. G. (1987). Barium Fluoride and Strontium Fluoride Negative Electron Beam Resists. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 5(1), 374-378. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Inal, O. T. (1987). Surface Crystallization Behavior of Metglas 2605-SC and 2826-MB. Journal of Materials Science, 22(1), 193-201. [More] 
  • Dobisz, E. A., Craighead, H. G., Schwartz, S. A., Lin, P. S., Kash, K., Schiavone, L. M. et al (1987). Lateral Patterning of Quantum Well Structures through Compositional Mixing. In Unk (editor), pages 194-202. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Craighead, H. G. (1986). Fabrication of Small Laterally Patterned Multiple Quantum Wells. Applied Physics Letters, 49(19), 1284-1286. [More] 
  • Inal, O. T. & Scherer, A. (1986). Review: Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Electrochemically Deposited Selective Solar Absorber Coatings. Journal of Materials Science, 21(3), 729-736. [More] 
  • Patel, S. N., Inal, O. T., Singh, A. J. & Scherer, A. (1985). Optimization and Thermal Degradation Study of Black Nickel Solar Collector Coatings. Solar Energy Materials, 11(5-6), 381-399. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Inal, O. T. (1984). A Reflection Electron Diffraction Study on Some Metal Oxide Solar Collector Coatings: Part II. Thin Solid Films, 121(4), 279-290. [More] 
  • Inal, O. T., Scherer, A., Reineke, E. G. & Borden, M. J. (1984). Characterization of Crystallization in Amorphous 2605 SC Alloy. Thin Solid Films, 1999(4), 395-412. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Inal, O. T. (1984). A Reflection Electron Diffraction Study on Some Metal Oxide Solar Collector Coatings: Part I. Thin Solid Films, 119(4), 413-428. [More] 
  • Scherer, A., Inal, O. T. & Singh, A. J. (1983). Investigation of Copper Oxide Coatings for Solar Selective Applications. Solar Energy Materials, 9(2), 139-158. [More] 
  • Scherer, A. & Inal, O. T. (1983). Optimization and Microstructural Analysis of Cobalt-Sulfide-Pigmented Aluminum Oxide. Thin Solid Films, 101(4), 311-328. [More] 

Contact

Administrative and Financial Contact

Kate Finigan
MC 200-79, Caltech
1200 E California Blvd
Pasadena, CA 91125

Office:  215 Powell-Booth
Phone:  626.395.4585
Fax: 626.577.8442
Email: kate@caltech.edu

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