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Vacuum Rabi Splitting with a Single Quantum Dot in a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

Research Area: Nanophotonics Year: 2004
Type of Publication: Article Keywords: cavity quantum electrodynamics, cQED, photonic crystal, Q factor, Purcell factor, Rabi splitting, quantum optics
Authors: Yoshie, Tomoyuki; Scherer, Axel; Hendrickson, J.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H. M.; Rupper, G.; Ell, C.; Shchekin, O. B.; Deppe, D. G.
Journal: Nature Volume: 432
Number: 7014 Pages: 200-203
Month: November
Cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems allow the study of a variety of fundamental quantum-optics phenomena, such as entanglement, quantum decoherence and the quantum–classical boundary. Such systems also provide test beds for quantum information science. Nearly all strongly coupled cavity QED experiments have used a single atom in a high-quality-factor (high-Q) cavity. Here we report the experimental realization of a strongly coupled system in the solid state: a single quantum dot embedded in the spacer of a nanocavity, showing vacuum-field Rabi splitting exceeding the decoherence linewidths of both the nanocavity and the quantum dot. This requires a small-volume cavity and an atomic-like two-level system. The photonic crystal11 slab nanocavity—which traps photons when a defect is introduced inside the two-dimensional photonic bandgap by leaving out one or more holes—has both high Q and small modal volume V, as required for strong light–matter interactions. The quantum dot has two discrete energy levels with a transition dipole moment much larger than that of an atom and it is fixed in the nanocavity during growth.
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